When: March 15, 1961

Where: Augusta, Georgia, United States of America

When it was announced that Bell Auditorium in Augusta, Georgia, would be segregating Ray Charles’s show, Charles immediately cancelled his appearance. This came after a refusal to include Augusta in his tour for “What’d I Say” and while he did pay the fine for breach of contract, he refused to play another show in Augusta, Georgia until after it was fully desegregated.


Further Reading:

Adelt, Ulrich. Blues Music in the Sixties: A Story in Black and White. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2010.

Lieber, M. L., Marsh, Dave, Young, Al, Gallert, Jim and Bjorn, Lars. Heaven Was Detroit: From Jazz to Hip Hop and Beyond. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 2016.

Lott, Eric. “Back Door Man: Howlin’ Wolf and the Sound of Jim Crow.” American Quarterly 63, no. 3 (2011): 697-710.

Lydon, Michael. Ray Charles: Man and Music. New York: Routledge, 2004.

Maultsby, Portia K. and Mellonee V. Burnim. Issues in African American Music: Power, Gender, Race, Representation. London: Routledge, 2016.

Monson, Ingrid. Freedom Sounds: Civil Rights Call Out to Jazz and Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.

Moore, Celeste Day. “Ray Charles in Paris: Race, Protest, and the Soundscape of the Algerian War.” American Quarterly 71, no. 2 (2019): 449-472.

Pavlic, Ed. “’But Amen is the Price:’ James Baldwin and Ray Charles in ‘The Hallelujah Chorus’.” James Baldwin Review 1, no. 1 (2015): 10-40.