When: December 10, 1948

Where: Palais de Chaillot, Paris, France.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights became the foundation for human and civil rights movement after WWII. For the Black Atlantic, the Declaration emphasized the recognition of fundamental rights and freedoms by their colonial leaders while fights for independence worldwide increased in momentum.

Further Reading:

Burke, Roland. Decolonization and the evolution of international human rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

Davis, Benjamin P. “What Could Human Rights Do? A Decolonial Inquiry.” Transmodernity, 2020.

Kuwonu, Franck. “Africa’s freedom struggles and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: 70 years since its adoption, the declaration has inspired liberation movements.” Africa Renewal 32, no. 15 (2019): 24-25.

Klose, Fabian. “Human Rights for and against Empire – Legal and Public Discourses in the Age of Decolonisation.” Journal of the History of International Law, 18, no. 2-3 (2016): 317-338.

Maldonado-Torres, Nelson. “On the Coloniality of Human Rights.” Revista Critica de Ciencias Sociais 114, (2017): 117-136.

Mignolo, Walter D. “Who Speaks for the ‘Human’ in Human Rights?” Hispanic Issues On Line (2009): 7-24.

Mutua, Makau. Human Rights: A Political and Cultural Critique. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2002.

Patterson, William L. We Charge Genocide: The Historical Petition to the United Nations for Relief from a Crime of the United States Government against the Negro People. International Publishers, 1970.

Whelan, Daniel J. Indivisible Human Rights: A History. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

Wright, Shelley. International Human Rights, Decolonisation and Globalisation: Becoming Human. Abingdon: Routledge, 2001.