When: March 21, 1960
Where: Sharpeville, South Africa
The Sharpeville massacre occurred after a day of demonstrations against pass laws when South African police opened fire on a crowd, killing 69 and injuring 180. It triggered mass underground resistance and international solidarity against South African apartheid and is cited as the beginning of international struggle against apartheid.
Brown, Julian. The Road to Soweto: Resistance and the Uprising of 16 June 1976. Oxford: James Currey, 2016.
Evans, Marissa. “Sharpeville Massacre.” BlackPast. February 22, 2009.
Lodge, Tom. Sharpeville: An Apartheid Massacre and Its Consequences. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.
UN Human Rights. “The Sharpeville Massacre – standing up against racism.” March 19, 2021.