When: June 1989

The 1980s recognized a global emergence of a new generation of Black youth who interpreted the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and leaders like Martin Luther King Jr. as too idealistic. Globally, Black youth were standing up in more assertive ways to ongoing oppression. The release of Public Enemy’s “Fight the Power” music video epitomized this through calls for radical action against racial oppression that was heard from the burrows of New York all the way to the streets of Apartheid South Africa.

Further Reading:

Chaney, Cassandra. “’You Can Never Kill Me’: Racism and Resilience in Hip Hop.” Journal of Popular Music Education 2, no. 1-2 (2018): 81-100.

Hodge, Daniel White. “AmeriKKKa’s Most Wanted: Hip Hop Culture and Hip Hop Theology as Challenges to Oppression.” Journal of Popular Music Education 2, no. 1-2 (2018): 13-28.

Nyawalo, Mich. “From ‘Badman’ to ‘Gangsta’: Double Consciousness and Authenticity, from African-American Folklore to Hip Hop.” Popular Music and Society 36, no. 4 (2013): 460-475.

Osuna, Steven. “The Psycho Realm Blues: The Violence of Policing, Disordering Practices, and Rap Criticism in Los Angeles.” Chiricu 4, no. 1 (2019): 76-100.

Rabaka, Reiland. The Hip Hop Movement: From R&B and the Civil Rights Movement to Rap and the Hip Hop Generation. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2013.

Rabaka, Reiland. Hip Hop’s Inheritance: from the Harlem Renaissance to the Hip Hop Feminist Movement. Lanham: Lexington Books, 2011.