When: February 21, 1965

Where: New York City, USA

Malcolm X, a leader and minister in the Nation of Islam in Harlem was assassinated on February 21, 1965 at the Audubon Ballroom in Washington Heights. Often contrasted with Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.’s peaceful protest methods, Malcolm X was known for his advocacy of self-defense and liberation for African Americans by any means necessary. His assassination fueled unrest in the Black community and inspired more radical factions and an increasingly more moderate philosophy in the Civil Rights Movement.

Further Reading:

Ambar, Saladin M. Malcolm X at Oxford Union: Racial Politics in a Global Era. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014.

Breitman, George, Smith, Baxter and Herman Porter. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Pathfinder, 1991.

Gore, Dayo F., Theoharris, Jeanne and Komozi Woodard. Want to Start a Revolution? Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle. New York: New York University Press, 2009.

McDuffie, Erik S., and Komozi Woodard. “’If You’re in a Country That’s Progressive, the Woman is Progressive’: Black Women Radicals and the Making of the Politics and Legacy of Malcolm X.” Biography (Honolulu) 36, no. 3 (2013): 507-539.

Tuck, Stephen G. N. and Henry Louis Gates Jr. The Night Malcolm X Spoke at the Oxford Union: A Transatlantic Story of Antiracial Protest. Oakland: University of California Press, 2014.

Walker, Dennis. Islam and the Search for African American Nationhood: Elijah Muhammad, Louis Farrakhan, and the Nation of Islam. Atlanta: Clarity Press, 2005.