When: September 11, 2001

Where: New York City, USA

9/11 heavily affected the 2000s in North America and the Muslim world. Changes in immigration and travel security meant that more and more people of colour were profiled even more throughout the United States both at entry points and within communities. Xenophobia was rampant as justifications began to send troops throughout the Middle East and parts of Africa as part of George W. Bush’s War on Terrorism.


Further Reading:

Grewal, Inderpal. “Transnational America: Race, Gender and Citizenship After 9/11.” Social Identities 9, no. 4 (2003): 535-561.

Hill, Marc Lamot. “Using Jay-Z To Reflect on Post-9/11 Race Relations.” The English Journal 96, no. 2 (2006): 23-37.

Jayawardane, M. Neelika. “Ambiguous Bodies, Authentic Bodies: Terrorists, Passports, and Immigration Law in the Post 9/11 World.” Current Writing 22, no. 2 (2010): 131-151.

Ogbuagu, Buster C. “Constructing America’s ‘New Blacks:’ Post 9/11 Social Policies and their Impacts On and Implications for the Lived Experiences of Muslims, Arabs and ‘Others’.” Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 4, no. 1 (2013):

Smith, Malinda S. Securing Africa: Post 9/11 Discourses on Terrorism. London: Routledge, 2016.

Smith, Malinda S., Razack, Sherene and Suvendrini Perera. “Africa, 9/11, and the Temporality and Spatiality of Race and Terror.” In At The Limits of Justice, pp. 380-405. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2018.

Winant, Howard. The Politics of Race: Globalism, Difference, Justice. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2004.